There it is -- the full outline for the first half of my second novel, written out in about two minutes on a yellow sticky. It shows each of the three POV characters in order of their relative importance. The guy at the bottom is the Russian scientist who ends up becoming the wizard Xax in my first novel.
It may seem funny, but this is about all I need in order to write my books. At some point I may sketch out a timeline to ensure everything matches up. I'll also use some index cards in order to keep track of all the tiny characteristics for each character in the book. But, for the story, all I need to know is what character is in the next scene and what plot point is involved.
The way I write a chapter is to take the character and the one plot point and simply let them go. My mind has already evolved loads of history and detail of the 'world' and of each character, so I already know how things go in general; I just don't know the specifics of dialogue and any unusual happenings that will spontaneously show up as I am typing. All I know is that once I begin to tap out a chapter on the keyboard, I zone out and wake up later with a chapter, and never once yet have I been disappointed by what came out!